The origin of the chrysidid names

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The origin of the chrysidid names

Postby Euchroeus » 27 Mar 2014 17:24

The origin of the chrysidid names

by Paolo Rosa

In the last years we received many requests of help for explaining the meaning of the chrysidid Latin names and for choosing new Latin names for undescribed species. In this page we try to explain, whenever it is possible, the origin and the meaning of all the valid generic names and specific names of some European chrysidids. The final goal is the explanation of all the European species names. It’s a work in progress, you can add your comments and ask for the meaning of other names not included in the list.

The use of Latin in systematics
The scientific name of a species is like the index number of a file. It gives immediate access to all information in literature.

Each name is given according to some rules. Biological nomenclature derives from the binomial nomenclature that was originally codified in the works of Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae, 10th Edition (1758). These publications are the decided starting points for the modern biological nomenclature in most groups of plants and animals.

The binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of animals by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammar forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. It is called binomial because each species name should consist of two names: the first generic and second specific, e.g. Chrysis ignita. The combination of the two makes the name unique. Such a name is also informally called Latin name.

Why Latin or latinized names are used in zoology?
Latin was the most important scientific language of Linnaeus’ time and continues to be a critical language for international communication. The main reason why zoologists have adopted Latin by international agreement is that Latin is a dead language and therefore does not evolve and is acceptable to everybody. Other living languages are continuosly changing and evolving, in particular the English language, which is nowadays considered as the scientific language. More in general, the official and scientific name for animals and plants come from Latin but most are based in a Greek source or even older than that.
Notice that the Latin name is written in italics and that the genus name is capitalized but the species name is not. This is the way all scientists write the scientific names of animals.

Formation of Latin names.
To be available, a name must follow different rules: the generic name must be treated as Latin noun. Latin nouns have grammatical gender, but this usually has nothing to do with the actual gender; often indicated by ending –a (mostly are feminine), –us (mostly are masculine), –is (may be either masculine or feminine), –um (mostly are neuter), –e (feminine or neuter). The species name must be a Latin name or latinized and agree with the Latin gender. In case of patronyms (names dedicated to person, genitive) the name will end in –ae (women), -i (man), -orum (brothers or Mr and Mrs), -arum (sisters).

Problems related with use of the Latin language.
In the last decades many zoologist asked for the suppression of some rules related to the use of the Latin language. In particular they asked to change the rule related to the use of Latin or latinized adjectival species-group names which must always agree in gender with the generic name with which they are combined. This topic is treated in the introduction to the 4th edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), in effect since 1st January 2000. In the introduction is written: “Another major underlying policy issue currently being questioned is the adherence to Latin grammar which the Code requires in a number of its Articles; few zoologists today, or in the future, can be expected to have any understanding of that language and many find the requirements burdensome. As in previous Codes, the present edition retains the requirement that Latin or latinized adjectival species-group names must always agree in gender with the generic name with which they are combined. A proposal was considered that would have allowed the names of species and subspecies to be treated as though they were arbitrary words (i.e. they were never to be treated as Latin adjectives), so that their spellings would be invariable irrespective of the gender of the generic name with which they are combined at any time. The proposal would not only have eased the burden on those without Latin, but would also have facilitated electronic searching. But, because the various ways proposed of achieving unchanging spellings were all considered to have drawbacks by the majority of respondents, and were not acceptable to them, the proposal was dropped. However, some changes are made in this edition to simplify the identification of gender in genus-group names, and the formation of stems for family-group names, and the Commission hopes these will reduce some of the difficulties of those without knowledge of Latin.”

The use of the Latin language in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
The use of Latin is ruled and found in different chapter and articles of the Code at every hierarchy: family-group names, genus- and species-group names. In particular the Chapter 4 and 7 include the rules for the formation of new name and the treatment of the Latin names. Here some articles related to the use the Latin language in the Code:

Chapter 4: Criteria of availability
Article 11. Requirements. To be available, a name or, where relevant, a nomenclatural act must satisfy the following provisions:
11.2. Mandatory use of Latin alphabet. A scientific name must, when first published, have been spelled only in the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet (taken to include the letters j, k, w and y); the presence in a name when first published of diacritic and other marks, apostrophes or ligatures, or a hyphen, or a numeral in a compound species-group name, does not render the name unavailable (for corrections, see Articles 27 and 32.5.2).
11.3. Derivation. Providing it meets the requirements of this Chapter, a name may be a word in or derived from Latin, Greek or any other language (even one with no alphabet), or be formed from such a word. It may be an arbitrary combination of letters providing this is formed to be used as a word.
Recommendation 11A. Use of vernacular names. An unmodified vernacular word should not be used as a scientific name. Appropriate latinization is the preferred means of formation of names from vernacular words.

11.7. Family-group names.
11.7.2. If a family-group name was published before 1900, in accordance with the above provisions of this Article but not in latinized form, it is available with its original author and date only if it has been latinized by later authors and has been generally accepted as valid by authors interested in the group concerned and as dating from that first publication in vernacular form. Example. The mite family name TETRANYCHIDAE is generally attributed to Donnadieu, 1875. He published the name as "Tétranycidés", but in view of the general acceptance of TETRANYCHIDAE from 1875 it is to be attributed to his work and date, not to Murray (1877), who first latinized it.

11.8. Genus-group names. A genus-group name (see also Article 10.3) must be a word of two or more letters and must be, or be treated as, a noun in the nominative singular.
11.8.1. A genus-group name proposed in Latin text but written otherwise than in the nominative singular because of the requirements of Latin grammar is available, provided that it meets the other requirements of availability, but it is to be corrected to the nominative singular.

11.9. Species-group names.
11.9.1. A species-group name must be a word of two or more letters, or a compound word (see Article 11.9.5), and, if a Latin or latinized word must be, or be treated as, an adjective or participle in the nominative singular (as in Echinus esculentus, Felis marmorata, Seioptera vibrans), or a noun in the nominative singular standing in apposition to the generic name (as in Struthio camelus, Cercopithecus diana), or a noun in the genitive case (e.g. rosae, sturionis, thermopylarum, galliae, sanctipauli, sanctaehelenae, cuvieri, merianae, smithorum), or an adjective used as a substantive in the genitive case and derived from the specific name of an organism with which the animal in question is associated (as in Lernaeocera lusci, a copepod parasitic on Trisopterus luscus).
11.9.2. An adjectival species-group name proposed in Latin text but written otherwise than in the nominative singular because of the requirements of Latin grammar is available provided that it meets the other requirements of availability, but it is to be corrected to the nominative singular if necessary.
Example. Accompanying his treatment of the species Musca grossa and M. tremula, Illiger (1807) described a new fly stating "... species occurrit, Grossae et Tremulae intermedia ... quam Pavidam nuncupamus" [there is a species intermediate between M. grossa and M. tremula, which is here called pavida]. The specific name published in the accusative case as pavidam is corrected to the nominative pavida.

Chapter 7: Formation and treatment of names
Article 26. Assumption of Greek or Latin in scientific names. If the spelling of a scientific name, or of the final component word of a compound name [Art. 31.1], is the same as a Greek or Latin word, that name or that component is deemed to be a word in the relevant language unless the author states otherwise when making the name available.

Article 31. Species-group names.
31.1. Species-group names formed from personal names. A species-group name formed from a personal name may be either a noun in the genitive case, or a noun in apposition (in the nominative case), or an adjective or participle [Art. 11.9.1].
31.1.1. A species-group name, if a noun in the genitive case formed from a personal name that is Latin, or from a modern personal name that is or has been latinized, is to be formed in accordance with the rules of Latin grammar.
Examples. Margaret, if latinized to Margarita or Margaretha, gives the genitives margaritae or margarethae; similarly Nicolaus Poda, even though the name of a man, if accepted as a Latin name, gives podae; Victor and Hercules, if accepted as Latin names, give victoris and herculis; the name of Plinius, a Roman, even though anglicized to Pliny, gives plinii; Fabricius and Sartorius, if treated as Latin names, give fabricii and sartorii, but if treated as modern names give fabriciusi and sartoriusi; Cuvier, if latinized to Cuvierius, gives cuvierii.
31.2. Agreement in gender. A species-group name, if it is or ends in a Latin or latinized adjective or participle in the nominative singular, must agree in gender with the generic name with which it is at any time combined.
31.2.3. If a species-group name (or, in the case of a compound species-group name, its final component word) is not a Latin or latinized word [Arts. 11.2, 26], it is to be treated as indeclinable for the purposes of this Article, and need not agree in gender with the generic name with which it is combined (the original spelling is to be retained, with ending unchanged; see Article 34.2.1).
Example. Species-group names such as melas, melaina, melan; polychloros, polychloron; celebrachys; nakpo (from the Tibetan word meaning black) remain unchanged when transferred from combination with a generic name of one gender to combination with one of another gender. But melaena is a latinized adjective (derived from the Greek melaina) and must be changed when so transferred, with an appropriate Latin gender ending (-us masculine, -um neuter).

Article 34. Mandatory changes in spelling consequent upon changes in rank or combination.
34.2. Species-group names. The ending of a Latin or latinized adjectival or participial species-group name must agree in gender with the generic name with which it is at any time combined [Art. 31.2]; if the gender ending is incorrect it must be changed accordingly (the author and date of the name remain unchanged [Art. 50.3.2]).

Catalogue of the chrysidid name

How to read the catalogue
The Greek words in zoological nomenclature are transliterated into Latin alphabet. In the following list we also transliterate the Greek worlds for a better comprehension of the Chrysidid names. For example, the name Chrysis is derivated from the Greek noun χρυσός (= gold). In the list, the Greek world χρυσός is transliterated into the Latin world chrysos. For addictional note see also: R.E. Buchanan (1956) “Transliteration of Greek to Latin in the Formation of Names of Zoological Taxa” Systematic Zoology, 5 (2): 65-67. From Buchanan: “Most of the names of taxa of animals are derived from the Greek, as are also many of the specific (trivial) and subspecific names. Under the Zoological Rules the Greel words are to be transliterated and trated as Latin words. Throughout the history of modern zoology there asn been the tacit assumption that the classic precedent as established by the Latins should be followed in such transliteration. Linnaeus himself stated that when Greek names are transliterated into Latin “the equivalents used by the Romans from all time must be adopted in representing the Greek letters”. He twice outlined in part the “classic” rules and gave examples of good forms. However, an examination of the names of taxa proposed in zoology shows that in practice there exist variations in tranliteration that have led to confusion.”

The following derivatio nominis reports (whenever it is known and possible) the rooth and the suffix of the chrysidid names.


[GR] word derivated from the Greek
[LAT] word derivated from the Latin
adj. = adjective
adv. = adverb
nn. = noun
num. = numerals
pref. = prefix
pres. part. = present participle
past part. = past participle
suff. = suffix
v. = verb

Note: in bold and Italic are given the valid and accepted names,
names written only in Italic are synonyms.


Cleptes (from cleptes [GR, nn.] = thief) [m.]
Cleptidea (from cleptes [GR, nn.] = thief) + (idea [LAT, nn] = form, idea (philosophic)) [f.]

Adelphe (from adelphe [GR, nn.] = sister) [f.]
Afrosega (from Afro- = African) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Alieniscus (replacement name for Alienus Bridwell 1919, nec Handlirsch, 1906) (from alienus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = alien, extraneus) [m.]
Amisega (unknown etymology [see Mocsáry, 1889]) Comment: most of the amiseginae genus names are derivated from the root “sega”. The preposition am- in Latin means all around. [f.]
Anachrysis (from ana- [GR, pref.] = not) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Anadelphe (from ana- [GR, pref.] = not) + (Adelphe) [f.]
Atoposega (replacement name for Atopogyne = atopos [GR, adj.] = absurd + gyne [GR, nn.] = female) (Atoposega: from atopos [GR, adj.] = absurd) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Baeosega (from baios [GR, adj.] = small) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Bupon (from bu- [GR, adj.] = great) + (pons [LAT, nn.] = bridge) [m.]
Cladobethylus (from clado [GR, nn.] = branch) + (Bethylus = Bethylid genus, Cladobethylus was firstly described in the family Bethylidae) [m.]
Colocar (derivation unknown, perhaps from collocare [LAT, v.] = place, put, assemble) [?]
Duckeia (dedicated to Adolph Ducke, an Austrian entomologist) [f.]
Exopapua (from ex [LAT, prep.] = from) + (Papua = named after the locality New Guinea) [f.]
Exova (from ex [LAT, prep.] = from) + (ovum [LAT, nn.] = eggs) [f.]
Imasega (anagram of the genus name Amisega) [f.]
Indothrix (from India) + (thrix [GR, nn.] = hair) [m.]
Isegama (anagram of the genus name Amisega) [f.]
Kryptosega (from krypto [GR] = hidden) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Magdalium (from magdalium [LAT, nn.] = cylindrical figure) [m.]
Mahinda (name of the Indian monk whose missionary efforts in the third century B.C. led to Buddhism being adopted as the established religion of the ancient Sihalese kingdom) [m.]
Microsega (from micro [GR] = small) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Myrmecomimesis (from myrmex [GR, nn.] = ant) + (mimesis [GR, nn.] = mimic) [m.]
Nesogyne (from nesos [GR, nn.] = island) + (gyne [GR, nn.] = female) [f.]
Obenbergerella (dedicated to Jan Obenberger) [f.]
Perissosega (from perissos [GR, adj.] = extraordinary) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Reidia (dedicated to Reid) [f.]
Rohweria (dedicated to S. A. Rohwer) [f.]
Saltasega (from saltus [LAT, nn.] = leap) + (sega = suff. from Amisega) [f.]
Serendibula (from Serendib, the ancient Arabic name for Sri Lanka) [f.]

Loboscelidia (from lobus [LAT, nn.] = lobed) + (schelos [GR, nn.] = leg) [f.]
Rhadinoscelidia (from radinos [GR, adj.] = agile) + (schelos [GR, nn.] = leg) [f.]

Adelopyga (from adelos [GR, adj.] = obscure, unknown] + (pyga [LAT, nn.] = buttock) [f.]
Elampus (from lampein (GR, v.) = to shine, glitter, sparkle) [m.]
Exallopyga (from ex- [LAT, prep.] = from) + (allos [GR, adj.] = different) + (pyga [GR, nn.] = buttock) [f.]
Haba (from Khaba [Russian]: ha [RUS, v.] = appear) + (ba [RUS, nn.] = soul) [f.]
Hedychreides (derivated from Hedychrum) [m.]
Hedychridium (derivated from Hedychrum). Comment: we are sure that Abeille de Perrin wanted to say a small Hedychrum, but there is no evidence. In this sense idium suggest a simple derivation from Hedychrum [m.]
Hedychrum (from educhrous [GR, adj.] = gratefully coloured).
Holophris (from holos [GR, adj.] = entire) + (ophrus [GR, nn.] = margin) [m.]
Holopyga (from holos [GR, adj.] = entire) + (pyga [LAT, nn.] = buttock) [f.]
Kimseya (dedicated to Lynn. S. Kimsey, an American entomologist) [f.]
Microchridium (from micros [GR, adj] = small) + (-idium = suff. derivated from Hedychridium)
Minymischa (from ? minimus, a, um [LAT] (derivated from [GR] minume)) + (ischio [GR, nn.] = pleura). Comment: name derivated from the short stub of the radial sector of the forewing. [f.]
Muesebeckidium (dedicated to Carl F.W. Muesebeck, an American entomologist) [m.]
Oligogaster (from oligos [GR, adj.] = small) + (gaster [GR, nn.] = venter (metasoma)) [m.]
Omalus (from omalos [GR, adj.] = uniform, smooth) [m.]
Parachrum (from par, paris [LAT, adj.] = alike) + (-chrum = suffix derivated from Hedychum) [m.]
Philoctetes (from the mythological name of Philoctetes [GR])
Prochridium (from pro- [LAT, prep.] = in its stead) + (-chridium = suffix derivated from Hedychridium) [m.]
Pseudolopyga (from pseudo- [LAT, suff.] + (Holopyga) = false Holopyga) [f.]
Pseudomalus (from pseudo- [LAT, suff.] + (Omalus) = false Omalus) [m.]
Xerochrum (from xeros [GR, adj.] = dry, arid) + (-chrum = suffix derivated from Hedychum) [m.]

Allocoelia (from allos [GR] = different) + (coelia [κοιλία GR, nn.] = venter). Comment = venter aliter constrictus ([LAT] Mocsáry, 1889) = abdomen differently shaped.

Allochrysis (from allos [GR, adj.] = different) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Argochrysis (from argos [GR, adj.] = white) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Caenochrysis (from cainos [GR, adj] = new) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Ceratochrysis (from cheras, cheratos [GR, nn.] = tubercule, horn) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Chrysidea (from Chrysis) + (idea [LAT, nn] = form, idea (philosophic)) [f.]
Chrysis (from chrysos [GR, nn.] = gold) [f.]
Chrysura (from chrysos [GR, nn.] = gold) + (ura [GR, nn.] = tail) [f.]
Chrysurissa (derivated from Chrysura) [f.]
Euchroeus (from edus [GR, adj.] = pleasant) + (chroma [GR, nn.] = colour) [m.]
Exochrysis (from ex [LAT, prep.] = from) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Gaullea (dedicated to G. de Gaulle, a French entomologist) [f.]
Ipsiura (from ipse, ipsa, ipsum [LAT, pron.] ?) + (ura [GR, nn.] = tail) [f.]
Neochrysis (from neos (GR, prep.) = new) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Odontochridium (from odons [GR, nn. genitive] = tooth) + (-idium = suffix derivated from Hedychridium) [m.]
Pentachrysis (from penta [GR, num.] = five) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Pleurochrysis (replacement name for Pleurocera = )+ (Chrysis) [f.]
Praestochrysis (from praesto [LAT, v.] = excel, stand out, superior to) + (Chrysis) [f.]
Primeuchroeus (from primus [LAT, adj.] = first, first in succession] + (Euchroeus) [m.]
Pseudospinolia (from pseudo- [LAT, suff.] + (Spinolia) [f.]
Spinolia (dedicated to Massimiliano Spinola, an Italian entomologist) [f.]
Spintharina (from spinther [GR, nn.] = spark) [f.]
Spintharosoma (replacement name for Spintharis Klug: spinther [GR, nn.] = spark + soma [GR, nn.] = body) [f.]
Stilbichrysis (derivated from the combination of the chrysidid genus names Stilbum + Chrysis) [f.]
Stilbum (from stilbein [GR, v.] = sparkling, resplendent) [m.]
Trichrysis (from tri- [LAT, suff.] = three times) + (Chrysis). Comment: the meaning is with 3 teeth [f.]

Cephaloparnops (from cefale [GR, nn.] = head) + (parnops [GR, nn.] = locust) [m.]
Isadelphia (replacement name for Isadelphus) [m.]
Parnopes (from Mocsary (1889): animal Antiquorum quoddam damniferum = from parnops [GR, nn.] = locust) [m.]


Cleptes (from cleptes [GR, nn.] = thief)
nitidulus (from nitidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = resplendent, decorated, nice, glossy)
pallipes (from pallere [LAT, v.] = to be pallid, loosing the natural colour) + (pes [LAT, nn.] = foot)
semiauratus (from semi- [LAT, pref.] = half) + (auratus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = golden)
semicyaneus (from semi- [LAT, pref.] = half) + (cyaneus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = cyan blue)

Hedychridium (?) Comment: we are sure that Abeille de Perrin wanted to say a small Hedychrum, but there is no evidence. In this sense -idium suggest a simple derivation from Hedychrum.
ardens (from ardere [LAT, pres. part.] = resplendent, brilliant, shining)
minutum (from minutus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = teeny-weeny)
integrum (from integer, integra, integrum [LAT, adj.] = intact, complete)
viridis (form viridis, e [LAT, adj.] = green)
chloropygum (from chloros [GR, adj.] = greenish-yellowish) + (pyga [GR, nn.] = buttock). Comment: the taxon was described as chloropyga [varietas (feminine) of Hedychridium roseum]. The name pyga is a feminine noun, which should not be changed into choloropygum. However we follow the CODE (art. 23.5 and 33.3.1) and use the incorrect subsequent spelling chloropygum.
caputaureum (from caput [LAT, nn.] = head) + (aureus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = golden)
spatium [/b](from spatium [LAT, nn.] = space, gap]. Comment: the name is referred to the "spaced" punctuation on the abdomen.
(from coriaceus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = leathery). Comment: the name is referred to the "leathery" punctuation on the thorax.
cupreum (from cupreum [LAT, adj.] = coppery)
purpurascens (from purpurascere [LAT, pres. part.] = painted with purple)
roseum (from roseus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = rosy)
rufum (from rufus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = reddish)
zelleri (dedicated to Philipp Christoph Zeller)

Hedychrum (from educhrous [GR, adj.] = gratefully coloured). Comment: see Dalla Torre (1892).
chalybaeum (from chalybaeius, a, um [LAT, adj.] = made of steel)
gerstaeckeri (dedicated to Karl Eduard Adolph Gerstaecker)
niemelai (dedicated to Paavo Niemelä)
nobile (from nobilis, e [LAT, adj.] = noble, well known)
lucidulum (from lucidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = shiny, resplendent)
regium (from regius, a, um [LAT, adj.] = regal, splendid)
lepeletieri (dedicated to Amédée Louis Michel Lepelletier de Saint-Forgeau)
rutilans (from rutilare [LAT, pres. part.] = shiny, brilliant)
intermedium (from intermedius, a, um [LAT, adj.] = intermediate)

Holopyga (from holos [GR, adj.] = complete, total overall) + (pyga [LAT, nn] = buttock)
amoenula (from amoenus,a, um [LAT, adj.] = pleasant, nice, likeable)
fastuosa (from fastuosus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = proud)
gloriosa (from gloriosus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = glorious)
fervida (from fervidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = ardent, burning)
curvata (from curvare [LAT, past part.] = bent, curved)
generosa (from generosus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = generous)
metallica (from metallicus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = metallic)

Elampus (from lampein (GR, v.) = to shine, glitter, sparkle)
bidens (from bi- [LAT, num.] = two) + (dens [LAT, nn.] = tooth) (bidens [LAT, nn.] = with two teeth)
constrictus (from constringere [LAT, past part.] = tied)
ambiguus (from ambiguus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = ambiguos, variable)
caeruleus (from caeruleus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = light blue, cerulean blue)
soror (from soror [LAT, nn.] = sister)
angustatus (from angustare (LAT, past part.) = becoming narrow, restricted)
unicolor (from unicolor [LAT, adj.] = only one colour)
olgae (dedicated to Olga)
foveatus (from fovea [LAT, nn.] = pit)
panzeri (dedicated to Georg Wolfgang Franz)
scutellaris (from scutulum [LAT, nn.] = small shield). Comment: scutellum from a Latin noun according to “A Dictionary of Entomology”.

Omalus (from omalos [GR, adj.] = uniform)
aeneus (from aeneus [LAT, adj.] = bronze, bronze coloured)
chevrieri (dedicated to Frédréric Chevrier)
japonicus (named after the type locality: Japan)
sauteri (dedicated to Hans Sauter)
biaccinctus (from bi- [LAT, pref.]= twice) + (accingere [LAT, past part.] = englose, encircle)
puncticollis (from punctus [LAT, nn.] = point, dot) + (collum [LAT, nn.] = neck)

Philoctetes (Philoctetes [GR] = mithological name, friend of Hercules)
truncatus (from truncare [LAT., past part.] = break off, cut off)

Pseudomalus (from pseudo- [LAT, suff.] = false) + (Omalus)
auratus (from auratus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = golden)
viridiventris (from viridis, e [LAT, adj.] = green) + (venter [LAT, nn.] = venter)
pusillus (from pusillus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = tiny, very little)
triangulifer (from triangulum [LAT, nn.] = triangle) + (ferre [LAT, v.] = to bring, wear)
violaceus (from violaceus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = violet)
micans (from micare [LAT, pres. part.] = resplendent, brilliant)
fuscipennis (from fuscus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = dark) + (penna [LAT, nn.] = wing)
coeruleus (from coeruleus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = light blue, cerulean blue)

Chrysura (from chrysos [GR, nn.] = gold) + (ura [GR, nn.] = tail)
austriaca (named after the type locality: Austria)
osmiae (named after its host: species in the genus Osmia)
radians (from radians [LAT, nn.] = the sun (poetic))
pustulosa (from pustulosus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = coverd by pocks, papule)
trimaculata (from tri- [LAT, pref.] = three) + (maculata [LAT, past part.] = stained).

Trichrysis (from tri- [LAT, pref.] = three) + (Chrysis). Comment: the meaning is with 3 teeth
cyanea (from cyaneus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = cyan blue)

Chrysis (from chrysos [GR, nn.] = gold)
angustula (from angustus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = tight, short)
gracilis (from gracilis, e [LAT, adj.] = slight, thin)
brevidens (from brevis, e [LAT, adj.] = short) + (dens [LAT, nn.] = tooth)
bicolor (from bi- [LAT, pref.] = two) + (color [LAT, nn.] = colour)
virideocincta (from viridis, e [LAT, adj.] = green) + (cinctus [LAT, nn.] = belt)
brevitarsis (from brevis, e [LAT, adj.] = short) + (tarsos [GR, nn.] = tarsus)
corusca (from coruscus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = flashing)
equestris (from equester, equestris, equestre [LAT, adj.] ? = equestrian (unknown meaning)).
fasciata (from fasciare (LAT, past part.) = banded)
zetterstedti (dedicated to Johan Wilhelm Zetterstedt)
fulgida (from fulgidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = bright, resplendent, brilliant)
graelsii (dedicated to Mariano de la Paz Graëlls)
ignita (from igniare (LAT, past part.) = inflamed)
illigeri (dedicated to Carl Illiger)
chrysoprasina (from chrysoprásios [GR, adj.] = chrysoprase colour)
helleni (dedicated to Wolter Hellén)
impressa (from impresuss, a, um [LAT, past part.] = impressed)
aurifera (from aurifer, a, um [LAT, adj.] = bring gold)
iris (from iris [LAT, nn.] = rainbow)
nitidula (from nitidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = resplendent, decorated, nice, glossy, elegant)
purpurata (from purpurare [LAT, past part.] = coloured with purple)
soluta (from solvere [LAT, past part.] = free, without relationship)
leachii (dedicated to William Elford Leach)
leptomandibularis (from leptos [GR, adj.] = thin) + (mandibula [LAT, nn.] = mandible)
longula (from longulus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = elongated)
sublongula (from sub = alike, under (in compound names) + (longulus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = elongated)
aeneopaca (from aeneus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = bronze colour) + (opacus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = murky, gloomy, dark]
mediadentata (from medius, a, um [LAT, adj.] = in the middle) + (dentatus, a ,um [LAT, adj.] = toothed)
mediata [?] Comment: perhaps placed in the middle of other species of the ignita group
pseudobrevitarsis (from pseudo- [LAT, pref.] = false) + (brevis, e [LAT, adj.] = short) + (tarsis [LAT, nn.] = tarsus)
ruddii (dedicated to Rudd)
auripes (from aurum [LAT, nn] = gold) + (pes [LAT, nn.] = foot)
rutilans (from rutilare [LAT, past participle] = shiny, brilliant)
schencki (dedicated to C. F. Schenck)
scutellaris (from scutum [LAT, nn.] = shield) Comment: referred to the colour on the thoracic scutellum
segmentata (from segmentatus, a, um = decorated with golden or purple stripes)
sexdentata (from sex [LAT, num.] = six) + (dentatus, a, um = toothed)
solida (from solidus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = solid, robust)
fenniensis (from Fenni [LAT, nn.] = population of North Europe)
scintillans (from scintillare [LAT, part. pass.] = shine, sparkle)
splendidula (from splendidus [LAT, adj.] = splendid, gorgeus, brilliant)
subcoriacea (from sub- [LAT, suff.] = alike, under (in compound names)) + (coriaceus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = leathery)
succincta (from succingere [LAT, past part.] = wrap, armed with) Comment, perhaps armed with teeth?
terminata (from terminare [LAT, past part.] = complete, finish, run out, delimit, separate)
valida (from validus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = solid, robust, strong, vigorous)
viridula (from viridis, e [LAT, adj.] = green) Comment: related to the colour of the last tergite
bidentata (bi [LAT, num.] = two) + (dentatus, a, um [LAT, adj.] = toothed)
westerlundi (dedicated to Aulis C. Westerlund)
nordstromi (dedicated to Å. Nordström)

Pseudospinolia (from pseudo- [LAT, suff.] = false) + (Spinolia = named after Maximilian Spinola)
neglecta (from neglegere [LAT, past part.] = neglect, overlook)
integrella (from integer, integra, integrum [LAT, adj.] = intact)

Spinolia (dedicated to Maximilian Spinola)
unicolor (from unicolor [LAT, adj.] = only one colour)

Parnopes (from Mocsary (1889): animal Antiquorum quoddam damniferum = from parnops [GR, nn.] = locust)
grandior (comparative of grandis, e [LAT, adj.] = greater (oversize))
carnea (carneus [LAT, adj.] = flesh (related to the colour))
Paolo Rosa -
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Name: Paolo Rosa

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